The Heisenberg uncertainty principle
Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that neither the position nor momentum of a particle can be determine with great precision simultaneously
That means that is not actually possible to measure exact position and velocity of every particle in the universe at a certain time.
If measurement of a co-ordinator of x, has an uncertainty of Δx and corresponding momentum p has uncertainty of Δp, then the uncertainty of them are found to related by
ΔxΔp ≥ h/2π (The Heisenberg uncertainty principle)
The equation above is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for position and momentum.
Even using sophisticated instrument and detectors, would not yield to greater accuracy (precision). Because to measure (detect) a particle , the instrument (detector) has to interact with it which unavoidably change the state of motion of the particle thus introducing an uncertainty about its original state.
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle of energy
.The energy E of a system has an inbuilt uncertainty ΔE. The uncertainty principle ΔE, depend on the time interval Δt during which the system remains in a give state. The relation is
ΔEΔt ≥ h/2π (The Heisenberg uncertainty principle)
The equation above is the Heisenberg‘s uncertainty principle for energy and time interval.
The system that remains in a state for a very long time (large Δt) can have a well defined energy (small ΔE) but if remain in that state for a short time Δt, the uncertainty in energy must be correspondingly greater (large ΔE)
It is also impossible to make exact determination of a co-ordinator of a particle and corresponding component at the same time the precision for such measurement is limited by Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. For x-component is given by
Δx. Δpx >h/2π (The Heisenberg uncertainty principle)
The modern view of particle is that it has both wave and particle properties, described by the wave mechanical model. This model states that we cannot fix the position of a particle, but can only predict the probability of it being at a give point at certain time