# The Heisenberg uncertainty principle

**Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that neither the position nor momentum of a particle can be determine with great precision simultaneously **

That means that is not actually possible to measure exact position and velocity of every particle in the universe at a certain time.

If measurement of a co-ordinator of **x**, has an uncertainty of **Δx** and corresponding momentum **p** has uncertainty of **Δp**, then the uncertainty of them are found to related by

** ΔxΔp ≥ h/2π **(**The Heisenberg uncertainty principle)**

The equation above is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for position and momentum.

Even using sophisticated instrument and detectors, would not yield to greater accuracy (precision). Because to measure (detect) a particle , the instrument (detector) has to interact with it which unavoidably change the state of motion of the particle thus introducing an uncertainty about its original state.

# The Heisenberg uncertainty principle of energy

.The energy **E** of a system has an inbuilt uncertainty **ΔE**. The uncertainty principle **ΔE**, depend on the time interval Δt during which the system remains in a give state. The relation is

** ΔEΔt ≥ h/2π (The Heisenberg uncertainty principle)**

The equation above is the Heisenberg‘s uncertainty principle for energy and time interval.

The system that remains in a state for a very long time (**large Δt**) can have a well defined energy (**small ΔE**) but if remain in that state for a short time Δt, the uncertainty in energy must be correspondingly greater **(large ΔE**)

It is also impossible to make exact determination of a co-ordinator of a particle and corresponding component at the same time the precision for such measurement is limited by Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. For x-component is given by

** Δx. Δp _{x} >h/2π** (

**The Heisenberg uncertainty principle)**

The modern view of particle is that it has both wave and particle properties, described by the wave mechanical model. This model states that we cannot fix the position of a particle, but can only predict the probability of it being at a give point at certain time

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