Fundamental and Derived quantities,units and dimensions

Fundamental and Derived quantities,units and dimensions

Fundamental and Derived quantities,units and dimensions

Physical quantities have no meaning, unless is measured quantified and give a unit. Therefore we need number or quantity and unit of measurement to specify physical quantities.

There two type of physical quantities, Fundamental and derived quantities.

Among the fundamental quantities we have three most important, there LENGTH, MASS, and TIME. The units of these three quantities form the base on which units of other quantities driver their units

Other fundamental quantities are:

Electric current

Temperatures

Luminous intensity

Amount of substances

Scientists all over the world try to use the same unity to measure the same quantity. Therefore the system of unit accepted all over the world is called SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL UNITS (SI UNITS).

FUNDAMENTAL QUANTITIES AND UNITS

QUANTITIES UNITS
LENGTH METER (m)
MASS KILOGRAM (kg)
TIME SECOND (s)
TEMPERATURE KELVIN (k)
ELECTRIC CURRENT AMPERE (a)
AMOUNT OF SUBSTANCE MOLE (mol)
LUMINOUS INTENSITY CANDELA (cd)

 

How to Measure length, mass and volume

Introduction to the study of physics

Derived quantities and units

Derived quantities and the units are obtained by combination of basic units . For example, unit of volume is obtained by multiplying the units of length three times. ie m × m × m =m3  which is pronounced as meter cubed or cubic meter. Density is the ratio of mass and volume , therefore the unit of density is kg/m3  or kgm-3 , which is pronounced kilogram per meter cubed, speed is defined as  a distance divided by time so the unit is m/s or ms-1 and is pronounced meter per second.

See other derived units and their physical quantity below

QUATITY DERIVATION UNIT
Area Length × breadth M2
Volume Length × breadth x height M3
Density Mass/volume Kgm-3
Velocity Displacement/time Ms-1
Acceleration change in velocity/time Ms-2
Weight Mass x acceleration due gravity Newton (N)
Momentum Mass x velocity Newton second (Ns)
Pressure Force/ area Pascal or Nm-2
Energy or work Force X distance Joule (j) or Ns
Power Work/time Watt (w) or js-1 Or NmS-1

SUMMARY

Fundamental quantities are the basic quantities that are independent of the other quantities.

Fundamental unit are unit upon other units formed

Derived quantities and unit are those formed obtain by combination of fundamental quantities and units.

DIMENSION OF PHYSICAL QUANTITIES

The dimension of physical quantity indicates how the SI unit is made up. That is expression of physical quantities  in term of dimension of three  fundamental units: Length(L)  Mass(M) and Time(T)

For example the dimension of density:

Density= M/V= M/L3= ML-3

The dimension of acceleration:

Accn  = V/t =S/t2=LT-2

The dimension of force F:

F=Ma=MLT-2

                             Other physical quantities, their units and dimension

PYSICAL QUANTITIES UNITS DIMENSION
Velocity Ms-1 LT-1
Acceleration Ms-2 LT-2
Force N (ma) MLT-2
Momentum Kgms-1 MLT-1
Density Kgm-3 ML-3
Pressure Nm-2 ML-1T-2
Young’s modulus Nm-2 ML-1t-2
Surface tension Nm-1 MT-2

Important of dimension

Dimension can be used to determine or verify whether a physical equation is correct or not, as the dimension of both sides of the equation must be the same, for the equation to be correct.

For example

S= ut =1/2at2

Where s= distance

U= initial velocity

a=acceleration

t= time

The dimension of S = L therefore the other side of the equation most be L

Solution

Ut =s/t x t= s = L

1/2at2 = s/t2 x t2 = S= L

S= ut =1/2at2 , but S =L, ut =L and 1/2at2 =L

Therefore, the dimension of S= ut =1/2at2

Is L =L, this shows that the equation is right dimensionally.

 

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