Electric field cannot be discussed without first all talked about electric force.
Electric force: According to coulomb’s law, which state that the force of attraction between two charges is directly proportional to that products of the two charges and inversely proportion to the square of distance separating them and also act along the line joining the charges.
Where k = constant of the proportionality which is give as
Where Ɛo = relative permittivity = 8.854 x 10-12Fm-1 , k = 1/4πƐo =9 x 10 109(Nm2C2 )
Also d= distance separating the charges, Q1 and Q2 = charges and is measured in coulomb
The electric field
Electric field can be defined as a region where electric force is felt. Electrified can also be described in terms of line of force which represent the direction of motion of small positive charge place at a point in the field assuming that the charge is so small that the field did not change by the presence of charge.
Electric field intensity
The electric field intensity at any point can be defined as electric force per a unit charges which it exerts at that point. The unit of electric field intensity is Newton per coulomb (NC-1). It is given as:
Assuming that the electric field intensity E, makes an angle Ѳ, with a small surface area ⊿A, then the electric field flux Ψ = EcosѲ⊿A. But for the flux through an area perpendicular to the lines of force is E x area . Example for a sphere the flux is given as