Electric components and symbols in physicss

electric components

Electric components and symbols

What are the electric components? They are component needed in electric circuit for it to function and perform the purpose of designing the circuit. These components are , resistor, diode, Ic ( integrated circuit), transistor, capacitor, lED, LCD,  and many more.

Electric components are of two types, active and passive components

Active electric components.

These components depend on the source of energy, and they can also control electron flow through them. Some of them are semi conductors, examples are, Diode, transistor, Integrated circuit, and display components like LED, LCD, CRTs, and also power sources like batteries, pv cell, and AC and Dc power supply sources


Electric components

Diode is electric component that allow current in one direction. It used in conversion of Ac to DC (ie Alternating current to Direct current). Diode is made with semi conductor material. Diode has two terminal, anode and cathode terminals.Type of diode: we have PN diode, zener diode, and photo diode.


It is semi conductor device with three terminals. It is used as switching device and  also as an amplifier. Transistor is of two type, bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and field effect transistor (FET. Further). Furthermore transistor can also be classified as PNP and NPN transistors

Integrated circuit

Electric components

It is electric component which is made up of transistors, resistors, diodes, and many other electric components on a very tiny silicon chips. Integrated circuit is the building block of current electronic devices like phones, computers etc.

Integrated circuit can be digital or analog. IC is classified as linear and nonlinear ICs depending on it applications. Most of the IC in electronics circuit are OP-amps Ic, Timer Ic, Switch Ic, and so on.

Display Devices


Electric components

This stand for liquid crystal display(LCD). It is a flat display technology, which is used electronics device like computer monitors, cell phone display and calculators.  LCD uses two polarized filter and electrodes for selectively disable or enable the light to pass from reflective backing to the eyes of the viewers.


This stand for Cathode ray tube. It is an elongated vacuum tube in which flattened surface has external components as electron gun, electron beam and a phosphorescent

screen. It is also a display device use in televisions and computer screens. It works on the movement of electrons beams back and forth at  the back of the screen.



Itis a power source, which converts chemical energy to electrical energy. Batteries consist of one or more cells and each cell contains an anode, cathode and electrolyte. The batteries cells are two types; primary cells and secondary cells. The primary cells are not recharge able while secondary cells are rechargeable

Passive electric components

Passive electric components can be used to store or regulate energy inform of  current  or voltage in a circuit.

The examples of passive electric components are Resistors, Capacitors, and inductors.



Resistor is two terminal electronics component, which is used to oppose or control the flow of current. Resistor works according to the ohm’s law, which states that the potential difference across the two terminal is directly proportional to the current flowing through it. That is V=IR

Types of resistors

We have Variable and fixed or non-variable resistors

Variable resistors: As the name applies; it is used to change resistance according into our requirements in electronic circuit. The variable resistors are commonly used as a three terminal device for calibration.

Fixed or non-variable resistors: The simple explanation of this resistor is that it cannot be adjusted. This kind of resistor is determined when designing a circuit, and therefore there is no room for adjustment, otherwise the circuit will not function according to the design.



 This electronics component is used in storing charges. Capacitor is made from two conductive plate with an insulator in-between. A capacitor blocks the DC signals and allow the AC signals and it is also useful with resistor in timing circuit.

The charges stored by a capacitor is given as Q = CV.

Where Q=charges, C= capacitance of the capacitor and the V= voltage applied



This can be called Ac resistor that stores electrical charges in the form of magnetic energy. Inductance resists the change in electric current. The unit of inductance is Henry. Its capability of producing magnetic lines is referred to as inductance, and it is given as; L = (ɥ.k.N2s)/l

L=inductance, ɥ =Magnetic permeability, k=magnetic coefficient, S=the cross section area of the coil, N =number of turns of the coils, and l =the length of the coil in axial direction

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