PHYSICS

wave equation, and general wave in physics

Table of Contents What are waves? Mechanical and Electromagnetic waves Waves motion Transverse and longitudinal waves Propagation of waves General representation of waves Terms use in describing waves and relationship between them Equations of traveling of waves Wavefronts Progressive and stationary waves Stroboscope Properties of waves Polarization  and  Polarization by reflection What is wave? A …

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Mirror formula

Mirror formula and the nature of the image formed by curved mirrors

Mirror formula and the nature of the image formed by curved mirrors What is a Mirror formula for concave mirror? A mirror formula is a relationship between the object distance or height (u), image distance or height (v) and focal length of the mirror Reflection of light by curved mirror A concave mirror has a …

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Refraction of light and Snell’s law in physic

Refraction of light CONTENTS Definition of refraction of wave Refraction of  through rectangular glass block Experimental determination of refractive index using real and apparent depth method Laws of Refraction  waves Refraction  through a triangular prism Total internal reflection and Critical angle Application of total internal reflection in nature Application of totally reflecting prisms Refraction  through …

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Reflection of light by plane and covered mirror

Reflection of light : Light is  wave and also a visible form of energy which is radiated outward from a source. We are able to see object because of the light they produce reflects back to us or light that fall on them from other sources also reflects back to us We have luminous and …

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gas laws

Gas laws and equations in physics

What are Gas laws ? To study gas behaviors, we should first of all consider three physical properties of gas, which are pressure volume and temperature. It is based on these three properties that the three gas laws were formulated. Note that among the three states of matter gas is most movable because of high kinetic …

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Nuclear Fission

Nuclear reaction in radioactive elements

What is Nuclear reaction? There are two types of nuclear reaction in radioactive elements – they are nuclear fission and nuclear fusion Nuclear fission This is nuclear reaction which can be defined as a process in which an unstable nucleus split into two parts of comparable mass. Fusion was discovered by Hann and strassman in …

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Simple harmonic motion  Question and answer 

Simple harmonic motion Question and answer  1 what is damped oscillation? Answer: Damped oscillation is one in which the amplitude gradually decrease with time and finally come to stop or zero. Simple harmonic motion Question and answer  2 Is a body moving with constant speed in a circular path undergoing acceleration? Answer: No it not …

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Resonance and forced Vibration in physics

Force Vibration and Resonance Let talk about force vibration before we discuss resonance.  From observation the amplitude of vibration in simple harmonic motion never really remains constant but becomes smaller and smaller. For instance the amplitude of bob of a simple pendulum decrease slowly until it comes to a stop. This is caused by loss …

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Simple harmonic motion in physics

what is simple harmonic motion? If a small body or a particle vibrates or moves to and fro along a straight line under the influence of a force so that its acceleration  toward a fixed point (or it equilibrium position) is proportional to its distance or displacement from that point, the body is said to …

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General physics question and answer 

  general physics questions and answer  1-10 The system international unit of pressure is Nm-2 or what? Answer: Pascal Define pressure. Answer: Pressure is defined as the force per unit area State the Pascal’s principle Answer: The Pascal’s principle states that the pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is       transmitted  undiminished to every …

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Radioactive elements

Radioactive elements and radioactivity

What is radioactivity? This is the spontaneous decay or disintegration of unstable nuclei of atoms of radioactive elements  by the emission of alpha (α-) particle, beta (β-) particle and gamma (γ-) radiation with the production of energy. What are radioactive elements?  These are the unstable elements that can decay or disintegrate  spontaneously to emit alpha …

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Physics formulas

Physics formulas, book 0ne for beginner

Physics Formulas for motions For the equation that connect, speed, velocity, acceleration, distance and time, we have four as listed below. V=U+2aS Physics formulas for work done W=Mgh (work done when something fall from up Physics formulas for energy EK=mgh , m=mass, g=gravity h=height Physics formulas for Power Physics formulas for linear expansion of solid …

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Semi conductor

What is semi conductor in physics?

 Semi Conductors These are the material with resistivity between conductors and insulators. That is they are neither conductor nor insulator, therefore they are called Semi conductor. Examples, germanium has resistivity of 0.6×103Ω-m and silicon has resistivity of 1.5×103Ω–m Semi conductors are grouping IV, elements, with four electrons in their outmost shell. The valence electrons of …

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APC

Daily post Nigeria news head lines today

2019: Why we won’t give Buhari automatic ticket – APC Ahead of the 2019 presidential election, the All Progressives Congress, APC, has declared that there will be no automatic ticket for President Muhammadu Buhari and other presidential aspirants in the party. National Publicity Secretary of the APC, Yekini Nabena said there will be no automatic …

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Fundamentals of Physics

Fundamentals of Physics questions and answers

Fundamentals of Physics questions and answers 1-10 Why is it that when you match a rug in your room you feel worn but when you match on the floor which is in the same room temperature with the rug you feel cold? Answer: It is because the cement floor is a good conductor of heat, …

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Projectile motion

Projectile motion in physics, what is it?

What is Projectile motion in physics   Projectile is an object thrown into air or launched in space to move freely by itself under the influence of gravity and air resistance. In projectile  motion we have time of Flight, time to reach maximum height, Maximum height and Range, all these are the parameters we take …

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quasar

Quasar-quasi stellar object facts (brightest object )

What is Quasar Quasar also known as QSO Quasi-Stellar object is   an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus Quasars are the furthest object from galaxy that can be seen Quasars are the brightest object in the universe Quasars are  believed to be a supermassive black hole rounded by an accretion disk. Quasar is about two billion …

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black hole facts

black hole facts you may not know (over 30)

These are the the black hole facts you may not know 1. Black hole is a place in space where gravity pull so much that it can trap light 2. In black hole matter are being squeezed in tiny space hence the strong gravity 3. Nobody can see black hole because no light can get …

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Electromagnetic wave examples, definition

Electromagnetic Wave These are the types of waves that do not need material medium for their propagation. They are produced by electromagnetic vibration. All the electromagnetic wave have the velocity of about 3 x 108m/s , but they defers in their wave length and in their frequency too. Therefore electromagnetic waves can be distinguished by …

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Physics question and answer on wave

Physics question and answer on wave 1 What is wave? Answer: Wave is  a disturbance which travels through a medium, transferring energy from one point to another, without permanently displacing the medium. Read also :  Electromagnetic wave examples and uses Physics question and answer on wave 2 What is the difference between Mechanical wave and …

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What is force in physics ?

What is force? Force can be defined as  agent that causes a body to change its state of rest or make it change its state and direction of its uniform motion when it  come in contact with the body. It can also be describe as external agent when applied to a body changes its state …

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What is friction in physics?

What is friction? Friction can be defined as a force which act at the surface of separation of two bodies in contact, and tend to oppose the motion of one over the other. Or The force resisting the relative motion of solid surface, fluid layers or object sliding against each other Frictional Force The  frictional …

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Physics question and answer on motion

Physics question and answer on motion 1 A car moves from rest with an acceleration of 0.2m/s2. Find the velocity when it has moved a distance of 50m. Answer V2 + u2 = 2aS Where v = ?, u = 0 (because the car started from rest) a = 0.2m/s2, and  = 50m V2  + …

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Physics: questions and answers on momentum and gravity

questions  on momentum and gravity 1 t0 5 Momentum and gravity: Give the direction and magnitude of the net force acting on the followings (1)  drop of rain falling down with a constant speed (2) A cork of mass 10g floating on water (3)) A kite held stationary on the sky (4) A can moving …

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how to read Vernier caliper

Vernier caliper is an instrument use in measurement. We use vernier caliper to measure small length such as diameter of rod ,  internal diameter of a tube  the depth of a cavity or the thickness of a plate, that which cannot be measured accurately  by  meter rule.  parts of the Vernier caliper. A Vernier caliper …

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Newtons Law of cooling statement

Newtons Law of cooling Newtons law of cooling state that for small difference in temperature between a body and it surroundings, the rate of gain or loss of heat by the body is proportional to the difference in temperature between the body and the surroundings. The Newtons law of cooling only holds in small range …

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X ray and Compton scattering

X-ray production The x-ray which is an example of electromagnetic, is produced when a rapid moving electron that have been accelerated through a potential difference of 103v to 106v strike a metal target.  The electron are produced by thermionic emission from the heated cathode and accelerated toward the anode (target) by large potential difference between …

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Laws of Conservation of Momentum (physics)

Law of Conservation of Momentum Before we talk about conservation of momentum, let us first of  all  define momentum. Momentum is the products of mass and velocity. For example if a body of mass, M, is moving with velocity v, then the momentum of the body is = m x v. From the Newton’s second …

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Newton’s laws of motion

Newton’s laws of motion Newton’s laws of motion: Before we discuss Newton’s laws of motion, note that forces are the only thing that cause the motion of a body. Forces: it can be defined as agent that can change or tend to change the state of rest or uniform motion of a body in a …

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Electric field

what is electric Field

Electric Field Electric field cannot be discussed without first all talked about electric force. Electric force: According to coulomb’s law, which state that the force of attraction between two charges is directly proportional to that products of the two charges and inversely proportion to the square of distance separating them and also act along the …

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What is Photo electric effect in physics?

Photo Electric effect What photo electric effect?. It can be defined as the emission of electron from metal surface when photon or electromagnetic radiation fall on it shows on it. For some surface like sodium, the wavelength photons have to be short (ultra-violent  or x-ray). To ensure emission. While for other such as cesium electrons …

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The physics branches

 physics branches  are 1.OPTICS: this is the  physics  branches that is concern with the study of light. Under optics physics we talk about electromagnetic radiation (EMR) like ultraviolet light and son. Optics has three branches, they are: Geometrics optics– which deal with the study of light as rays Physical Optics-which is the study of light …

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QUESTIONS on Heisenberg uncertainty principle

QUESTIONS on Heisenberg uncertainty principle 1 Determine the Heisenberg uncertainty in the Energy of photon which is radiated in time interval of 10-5s Momentum of 0.2kg football moving with a speed of 20ms-1 and restricted to a region of 25cm Determine the fractional  uncertainty in momentum too. Solution (1) using   (2) using   (3) Using   …

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The Heisenberg uncertainty principle

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that neither the position nor momentum of a particle can be determine with great precision simultaneously That means that is not actually possible to measure exact position and velocity of every particle in the universe at a certain time. If measurement of a co-ordinator of x, has …

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quantization of atom in physics

quantization of atom quantization of atom: According to Rutherford in 1910, atom which is positively charged at the nucleus and negatively charged at the obits would collapse in about 10-10s due attractive force between the nucleus and electrons, but in 1913 Niels Bohr  applied quantum theory to the problem and made a suggestion that electrons …

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Satellite definition

How to mount Satellite in orbit What is satellite?  These are body which move around the moon or planet. Some of them are natural while others are artificial.  To put satellites in orbit at certain height above, it must enter the orbit with correct speed where the centripetal force needed to keep it in orbit …

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specific heat capacity definition

Specific heat capacity The specific heat capacity of a substance is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of substance, through the a degree rise in temperature.( 1oC of 1k) . The quantity of heat received by the substance is directly proportional to the mass, change in …

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gravitational force definition

The gravitational force Before we go in gravitational force as it was defined by Newton law, let first all say something about gravitational field .The gravitational field can simple be described as field force. This force attracts all objects near to the Earth’s surface. That is the Earth exerts attractive force on every object near …

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surface tension definition

Surface tension and it co-efficient The surface tension is  being defined as a force that act parallel to the surface of a liquid. That is why a surface of liquid behaves as if it is covered with elastic skin, so the surfaces appear to be under tension which is called surface Tension. The surface tension …

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Elastic property of materials

Elasticity of Properties of Solids A body is said to be elastic if it retains its original shape after undergoing stretch or compression. For wires or springs, it observed that if a gradual stretch force is applied, the extension e, produced at anytime is directly proportional to the force or load applied. But if you …

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Classification of Machines in physics

What is Machine? Machines are devices by which work can be done easily. Examples of machines are , hammers, scissors , wheel barrow , pulley, Crowbar or anything at all that can help you do your work at ease. Terminology of simple machine Mechanical advantage: it is defined as the ratio of load to the …

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Electric current basics

 Electric Current Current electricity or electric current consist of the movement of charges from one region of conductor to another. Therefore electric current is a movement of electron around the circuit.   Terms in  electric Electric current Resistance Potential difference (p.d) Cells Electric Circuit Resistivity Conductivity Resistor Insulator Ohm’s law Electric current : it defined …

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magnet and magnetism in physics

Magnet and Magnetism Magnet : it is substance that attract magnetic material.                                                  Magnetic material: it any substance that can be attracted by magnet. Examples are iron nickel, steel cobalt and some …

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electric charge and matter

The electric charge and the structure of matter The static electricity is defined as electric charge at rest. We can only describe the properties of this charges and their behavior. The interactions between electric charge at rest can be observed by considering a plastic rod and a piece of fur. If the rods are charged …

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Thermo-flask keeps warm water warm and cold water cold.

Why thermo-flask keeps warm water warm and cold water cold. The thermoflask is built by considering heat transfer and how substance gain and loose heat, which is by only Conduction, Convention and Radiation. Conduction: It is process by which heat energy is gain or loses by the passage of heat from one molecule or particle …

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Heat transfer by Conduction, Convention and Radiation

 heat energy transfer Heat as one of forms of energy can be transferred from one point to another, through three ways. They are by conduction, convention and Radiation. Heat transfer by conduction: this is a process by which heat is passed along a metal object from one point to another. In this process heat is …

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The effect heat

The effect of heat on matter:Linear, cubic, and superficial expansion

   The effect of heat energy on matter Thermal expansion of solid: Solid expands when heated and contract when cooled. The rate of expansion of solid depends on the type of material the solid is made of. For example the rate of expansion of brass is difference from that of iron etc Effect of expansion Rail way …

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energy

The physics definition of heat energy

Heat energy as a form of energy Heat energy is a form of energy that makes us feel hot. Heat energy can also be defined as a form of energy which flows due to temperature difference. It is produced by sun, friction or fire. Heat can also be produced during chemical reactions Use of heat …

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power

what is power defined as in physics

What is power?  In physics power is defined as rate with which work is done. Power can be calculate in watts or in horse power if you are dealing with electrical power. power have difference equation use in calculation of it , depend on the parameters available just like equations of motion  and what you are …

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equations of motion

Equations of motion in physics

Parameters and equations of motion The parameters of motion in straight lines are: displacement, speed, or velocity, acceleration and time ALL the parameter is vector quantity except speed and time Displacement: it is the distance travel in specific direction Speed: Is the rate of change of distance with time. That is where v= speed S= …

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motion

What is motion in physics?

The motion in physics   Moving away from introduction of physics, energy, work done, units and dimension and measurement, today we are going to study motion.  Motion: it the movement of a body from one place to another. The study of motion without involving the force that causes it is called Kinematic, while the study …

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work done

what is work done in physics defined ?

work done in physics Outside physics, work has difference meaning, include even mental activities like reading, working in offices and many more. But in physics, work means only one thing. Work is said to be done when a force moves a body to a certain distance in direction of force. Work done is equal to …

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